Glossary of websites, domain name and hosting

Terminology about creating and managing websites.

A Record (Address Record)
It contains the IP address of the server that hosts the site. In the case of a shared hosting, it involves a domain name managed by a registrar at the IP server host, and it redirects traffic for this domain name to the directory of the website.
If the host manages the DNS, the user is not involved with A record but when the domain is hosted by another supplier it is necessary to give it the IP address, as the contents of A Record.
In practice, the management of A-Record appears in the administering panel only when the DNS are that of the registrar.
ccTLD
Country Code Top Level Domain. Domaine name with an extension which is the code of a country, such as .in (India), .jp (Japan).
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
Directory of scripts hosted in a Web space and called by a webpage or the server. We can use binary programs or a scripting language such as Perl or PHP.
Today CGI directory is not required: you can load JavaScripts from the current directory or anywhere on the server or communicate with any type of program through Ajax or WebSocket. The server can also run programs that generate content for the Web, which is the unique role of PHP.
Chat
Real-time discussion of two net surfers via a server, or thanks to the latest WebRTC technology directly from two browsers.
CNAME (Canonical NAME)
Invisible domain redirect. Redirect traffic by replacing the URL of a domain by another defined in this field.
Contacts

Three contacts are required for a domain name. They are represented by a name (of a person or a firm) and a email. The three contact may be the same person or entity.
Administrative: It is the person in charge of the domain contacted for example when change of registrar is requested. I may modify the infos or the DNS.
Billing: This is the person to whom is sent the renewal invoice. He cannot change anything.
Technical: The person to contact in case of problems. It can change DNS servers.

Cyperspace
Le world of Internet, including websites and their users. Some sites such as Facebook or Second Life have an activity similar to that of the real world.
Cybersquatting
Abusive use of brands in domain names.
Dedicated hosting
This type of host consists of a space and resources on an remote computer. You are granted a part of the bandwidth on the hardware, and it is your task install a server, to manage and configure it. We choose this mode, if the goal is to customize the configuration of the server, or we want to host many sites.
Domain
A domain name is a reference on Internet, associated to an IP address which indicates a computer, a local area network. The domain name is allotted for one year renewable and associated at an physical address by the DNS.
The name consists of a word or digits or a combination of both, and of an gTLD (generic Top Level Domain) extension or ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain) separated by a dot. One can still make precede the name by a sub-domain which may correspond to a sub-directory on the server. The maximum size of the name is of 63 characters (plus extension and sub-domains).
Domain Tasting
Practice for a registrar to take advantage of the opportunity to register a domain for five days without pay if no one confirms beyond five days. Some areas are created by mass, parked on a links page advertising and abandoned if they do not relate (= taste taste in English).
"Domain tasting" or "catch-and-release", was a practice where the buyer takes advantage of a five-day grace period designed to allow a domain registrant to get a refund if an error (such as a typo in their submission) has been made. Some domain name buyers have leveraged this loophole to purchase millions of domains, monitor their traffic for five days, and then return all but the best few for a full refund. Some have gone further with a practice known as "kiting". They leverage the same five-day grace period, but perpetually release and renew within the five-day window, essentially owning the domains at no cost. For the most part, registries such as VeriSign have worked with registrars to modify their terms and conditions to put an end to kiting.
This was near killed by a tax on registration to registrars even for a short term.
DNS
Domain Name Server designates the server which manages the domain name, in other words associates the textual name to the IP address of the hosting. Association is done by two servers, primary and secondary, or more.
Synomymous / neighbors / aliases domains
Aliases are domain names pointing at the same content, the same URL. It may also require them to have the same name with different TLD, or similar names. Not to be confused with the multi-domain or domain pointing at different subdirectories and that are seen as different websites.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
List of the most frequently asked questions, and answers.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Protocol for Internet access, which is used to download files, or upload the contents of the site. You can also create spaces on a site that are accessible to users in FTP mode.
Front running
Practice of some registrars to use searches on their WHOIS server to buy themselves domain that interest users, and use them as an advertising platform, or sell them for an extra cost ... possibly to the one who did the research.
It is recommended to use the Whois tool in SysInternal on Windows or the Whois Linux command to check the availability of a domain. Or using internic.org.
Hellspam
It is the name of a technique against those spamming forums, comments and pages of collaborative sites. When a spammer is identified, he uses the site to its advertising, rather than ban he, which would lead he to create another account and start over, we create a fake image of the website for him only where his posts are displayed, while they are not for other visitors. Technically, his posts are displayed only when the IP is his.
gccTLD
Generic Country Code TLD. A domain name of country that is often used generically.
The following list is recognized by Google and treated as such by the algorithm:
.as   .bz   .cc   .cd   .co   .dj   .fm   .la   .me   .ms   .nu   .sc   .sr   .tv   .tk   .ws (In April 2013).
Developers are often using .io tool and want this extension it enter the list as well.
gTLD
Generic Top-Level Domain. What one calls "extension" in three letters or more: com, net, etc.
ccTLD means Code Country Top-Level Domain and indicates the extensions of two letters specific to the countries (example: us, eu).
Hit
The number of hits is not the number of visitors but the number of requests to the server. If a page contains nine images, this products 10 requests on the network. Suppose a host limits to 10000 requests per day, a visitor looks at 5 pages on average (unofficial statistics) the site will be restricted to 2000 visitors a day.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
Protocol to access Internet to display HTML pages.
.htaccess
File of the Apache server, installed at the root of the site that controls access to HTML files, and allows for example redirecting a filename requested by the browser on a different file actually hosted.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
ICANN is the Institute supervising the domain names, the extensions (TLD, Signal-Level domain) and attribution to the companies that manage registries for each extension.
LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP)
This is the environment the most often used on hosts.
MX record (Mail eXchange record)
Field that defines the IP address of the server that handles mails.
NS record (Name Server record)
Field containing the IP address of the server of a domain name. It associates a domain name to an IP address, which may be another server on the same site, even if the company manages both the domain and the host.
PHP
Scripting language running server-side, even if the code is inserted in the HTML pages loaded by the browser. It creates a page content based on data read from the server or some processing.
POP
A POP account is a physical storage for emails on the host server (or the registrar). Useless with gmail.
Shared hosting
Hosting shared between websites on a server. The disk space allocated, a maximum monthly traffic or a maximum number of hits can possibly be limited for each user.
Registry
Organization charged to manage domain names for a type like "com, "net", "us", etc. It is designated by the ICANN and must maintain a database of the names, for the extension (the TLD) of which they are manager.
Registrar
Retailer of domain names. Intermediary enters the register and the purchaser of a domain name.
rTLD
Regional TLD. These are .eu et .asia which are domains of a region but treated by Google like generic.
Sub-domain
Name coupled with a domain name in the form xxx.example.com. The number of subdomains is often limited. A sub domain corresponds to a different site for search engines.
Traffic maximum
The maximum file size transferred to the user, including HTML pages, images, archives, and answers to queries to a database. The ceiling for the month reached, the transfers are stopped or an additional cost is required, according to the terms of use.
Troll
Name given to someone whose intervention on a forum or by extension in life is only to provoke reactions. Its origin has nothing to do with the mythical creature but comes from the ancient french hunting term "troller". This term has passed into the English language where it means dragging a lure as bait to catch fish.
UDRP
Charter established by the ICANN which governs the activity of registrars.
URL
Uniform Resource Location. The full address of a webpage. It is comprised of the domain name, the sub-domain (usually www) and the protocol (usually http) and separators.
Examples:
Registered domain: scriptol.com
Host name: www.scriptol.com
URL: http://www.scriptol.com
URL-rewriting
Consists to make a translation from page name sought by the browser and the actual filename on the site or even a name created dynamically at each access. This allows for example to show clear names for unreadable filenames or the redirect broken links.
Url-rewriting, at practical level is a rule placed in the ".htaccess" or similar file.
Webmail
Online messaging and e-mails consultation.
White Label
To put on his site a service represented by a script, or a content, made by a third party site, with his agreement, but without citing the author and source.
This added content from external origin seems to be part of the site that hosts it.

See also the SEO glossary and the Adsense Glossary.