New computer protocols
Several new protocols are currently being specified will define the hardware of our computers for years to come. Among the founders there are Google, Apple and Intel.
USB 3 began to be used in January 2010. Thunderbolt could replace it at the end of that year. For Internet, Google offers SPDY as an alternative to HTTP, and the wireless wiGig should replace the current WiFi and is ten times faster.
The wiGig (gigabit wireless) protocol is a way to transfer data wirelessly at very high capacity. It can transfer data ten times faster than current Wi-Fi (802.11n) or at 7 Gbps (almost 1 billion bytes per second) with the same scope.
It is intended to various house equipment, computers, TV, camcorder, that can be connected without wire, and to Internet.
It is compatible with the wi-fi protocol.
The network of partners forms the WiGig Alliance and includes Nvidia, AMD, TMC, Intel, Microsoft, and major manufacturers of computer peripherals.
The SPDY Protocol
SPDY, shortcut for SPeeDY, is a protocol invented by Google to speed up data transfers over the Internet, instead of HTTP. SPDY is pronounced “speedy”. It is based on the secure SSL protocol. It adds a layer to enable SSL for concurrent flows to go through a single connection. It preserves most parts of the HTTP interface: same attributes and methods.
Laboratory tests of this new protocol, with server software designed for it, show up to 60% faster transfer speed.
SPDY is implemented by Firefox 11 and Chrome. Nothing changes for the webmaster, the prefix is https, the transition occurs on the server.
Comparison with HTTP
The protocol is designed to eliminate or reduce the latency incurred during shipping of information on the Net.
- HTTP can handle only one resource at a time. Each request is dédicated to one transfer of information. This forces the browser to open multiple simultaneous connections to go faster, up to 6 at a time.
SPDY allows processing of multiple queries simultaneously in the same connection.
- HTTP only handles client requests, the server can not anticipate the useful information and send it.
SPDY allows the server to send data to the client in advance.
- There is no compression of data in the HTTP protocol, even if we can transfer compressed data at a higher level.
SPDY compress the headers and does not send redundant headers.
- SPDY also uses techniques to eliminate latency.
It also simplifies the encoding of the protocol, with messages easier to parse by the server.
But SPDY will be abandoned by Google in favor of HTTP/2, which offers the same benefits, and is standard. It will even be no longer supported on the Chrome browser in 2016.
USB 3 and Type-C
USB 3 or SuperSpeed USB, with this format, devices can transfer data at a speed of 625 MB per second.
The connectors are compatible with those of USB 2 and 1 with a new connector for lightweight devices.
USB 3 is widely available on PCs since January 2010.
USB 3 slots are blue and black for USB 2.
In 2014, a new specification appears, the USB 3.1 with Type-C connector that is the size of the micro-USB and has the advantage of being reversible: it can be plugged without worrying about the orientation.
Comparison of speed
|USB 1||USB 2||USB 3||USB 3.1|
|Bytes per second||1,5 MB||60 MB||625 MB||1 GB|
|Clock rate, bits/s||12 Mbit/s||480 Mbits/s||4,8 Gbit/s||10 Gbit/s|
In practice, on Windows and on a modern computer, when moving from USB 2 to USB 3 we pass from 40 Mb/s to 80 Mb/s (a personal observation). The change in bandwidth does not result in a gain of equivalent speed.
The Type-C is a new connector which replaces the Type-A used on computers and the Micro Type-B for mobiles and USB 3 It has the advantage of being reversible, thus avoiding the difficulty of finding the right direction to insert a cable, but offers many other possibilities. It supports a wide variety of tensions and enables alternative modes, ie support other protocols as USB. Among these protocols there is DisplayPort. That addresses the problems of multiple cables for different devices!
The Extensible Host Controller Interface is the name of the open specification for the USB host controller 3.
The name of the standard applied to connectors, cables and materials that support the specification.
Featuring the same connector as HDMI, the new standard announced September 4, 2013 is designed for new HDTVs. Indeed it can support a resolution of 3840 x 2160 pixels, four times that of screens and monitors of the current year.
It will not even be necessary to change the cable, because the current standard supports the 18 Gbs of bandwidth required.
Maybe we will finally see disappears VGA connector from computers and monitors? But this does not allow you to view a speech at the meeting of 2 hours in 20 minutes;)
More infos: HDMI Forum.
This new protocol supported by the major electronics firms wants to replace HDMI and offers sufficient possibilities to do so.
It should appear at the end of 2010 on computer hardware.
Using the RJ-45 cable that connects ordinary PCs to present to a housing ADSL, its transfers audio and video signals, connects networks and may include up to 100W power supply (monitors consume 50).
It has a higher bandwidth than HTML 1.4 and sufficient for 3D.
It will serve to connect the computer to Internet, the video monitor, external devices and thus supersedes both HDMI and USB.
Another unique feature is the possible length of a cable: up to 100 meters!
Thunderbolt (it is the name of a mountain in Oregon) is a new technology for connecting electronic devices and peripherals, primarily to a computer, which replaces USB, Fireware, eSata, HDMI, DVI and other formats.
It is based on DisplayPort and PCI Express and therefore allows external devices to be seen as internal.
The transfer speed of a Thunderbolt cable, using an optical fiber, is 10 Giga/bits per second, with a possible extension to 100 Gb/s. At this speed, you can transfer the 25 gigas of a Blu-Ray in less than a minute.
All types of devices can be connected with this technology: disk, mouse, monitors, etc.. Better yet, all devices can be plugged into one single connector.
The system comprises:
- A fiber optic (or copper) cable.
- A controller on a chip (being built by Intel).
- An optical module: it converts electrical impulses into light signals and vice versa.
- A connector on each device.
The fiber does not transfer power, which is why Intel plans to add a traditional copper wire to power peripherals such as hard disk. It is necessary to replace USB. This has no effect on the speed of data transmission.
Advantages over USB 3:
- Possibility to connect multiple monitors simultaneously.
- Double direction of data flow.
- Direct access to the motherboard as internal slots.
- Higher and more effective speed.
- All computer adapters
It is possible to connect a computer with a VGA, DVI or HDMI video output to a monitor with a video/audio input in each format, using a suitable adapter or cable.