Plutchik's emotion wheel. A model of human emotions for machines.

The wheel of emotion was invented by Robert Plutchik to defines a model of human emotions and their relations and combinations. It consists of 8 basic emotions, opposed in pairs, and multiple shades.

The model resulted in a circumplex where emotions and variations are represented by different colors and hues. This circumplex can be flattened in a 2D view (see below) to allow viewing of all emotions at once.

Shades of emotions

Alphabetical list of emotions

Basic emotion and the opposite

Relationship between emotions

Advanced emotions Composition Opposite
Optimism Anticipation + Joy Disapproval
Love Joy + Trust Remorse
Submission Trust + Fear Contempt
Awe Fear + surprise Aggressiveness
Distraction Surprise + Sadness Optimism
Remorse Sadness + Disgust Love
Contempt Disgust + Anger Submission
Aggressiveness Anger + anticipation Awe

Other emotional reactions are absent from this model: pity, disregard, shame, jealousy, desire, bitterness, humiliation, distrust, embarrassment, gratitude...

To give heart to robots and make them more human, the model should be completed.