Anatomy of an Android

In this section we will discuss the various components that let you animate an android and assign an activity. This is a series of articles which will gradually complete knowledge of androids.

From the computer to artificial brain

Like a character in a 3D game, the android, with space and voice recognition, is able to act in a manner similar to that of a human. To go further in the essential learning ability, researchers are working on the invention of an artificial brain-operated types of neurons.
An IBM team is currently developing an algorithm capable of transcribing a detailed map of the human brain in order to reproduce the functions by simulating an equivalent system.
Source Silicon Valley.

Artificial brain

IBM is working on a completely new computer architecture that is intended to imitate the human brain. It is unclear when a prototype of this technology will emerge, as it is at the stage of design.
In fact they are researching above all to understand how the brain works before starting to build an implementation. Then they could create a hardware and software that will emulate the sense of perception in order to address massive amounts of data directly from the environment.

They want to create a computer that is interacting with the real world and our environment and can respond intelligently according to the directives given to it. The current software is defined by the following methodology: we define ways to solve a problem, then we write the algorithm that implements this means. But our brain works in a opposite manner: it uses algorithms it already has and adapts them to each new situation enabling it to react to any change.

If we could achieve this kind of computer, its applications cover a multitude of areas. One might have avoided the economic crisis taking into account all the parameters of the global economy to predict trends and identify actions to prevent abuses …

To achieve its artificial brain, IBM relies on nanotechnology, an area still poorly explored but which could provide the level of miniaturization required to mimic the brain. It works in conjunction with DARPA (which has already developed some amazing models of robots), and several universities.

More on PCWorld.

The artificial skin is it same that that of a human?

The same kind of material is used for both prostheses as robots. The appearance is exactly the same as that of human skin, but the tactile sensation is different. It can be made of silicone or polyurethane.
To assess its qualities, several researchers have conducted a study on behalf of European and Asian university on how it can be be pressed and deformed. The results show that for these materials, artificial skin is deformed as much as natural skien, but it takes a superior force to the same effect, thus producing a different feel to the touch.

Source arXiv.org.

The artificial hand

The hand of a robot can reproduce all the gestures of a human hand with a few servos. In fact the same kind of prosthetic device is used to humans who lack a member. He incorporates sensors to give a sense of touch necessary for practical use. In the case of man, it connects the sensors to the brain through a specialized interface, whereas they are interfaced with software in the android.

The artificial hand.

Electronic Hand Dextrous arm of British society Shadow is probably the most advanced model in the world. It is equipped with motors for precise control over the end of arm movements and especially the artificial fingers. With 24 degrees of freedom it makes all human movements, can be controlled remotely to imitate all the movements of a person. It is already marketed.

Video of the Dextrous robotic hand.

A virtual face to Actroid

The company Image Metrics shown its realization, an artificial face, although created from real elements, and it simulates real expressions of a real woman. Video:

The vision in equations

Several processes can give a sense of vision to a robot, but the O'Carroll algorithm is using a completely different approach that has resulted in a cost effective result. This is to bring the vision of insects in mathematical formulas. Then from the five equations for the components of the images (brightness, movement, contrast, ...), an algorithm calculates how to move relative to objects or manipulate them.

Videos of androids

Conversation with Repliee Q1.

More

The artificial muscle. See featured article: Artificial muscle in silicone or Aerogel.

The robot that laughs... Japanese researchers have developed a mechanism to simulate laughter from a machine. His name is WAHHA GO GO. A video explains how the laughter is produced by the robot. A kind of vocalization is obtained with a wheel controlling a bellows producing a stream of air that vibrates a membrane. Well, now we know that a robot can also laugh and laughter is contagious!