All popular programming languages, for each one the description and why to choose it, a link to a detailed card and another to a sample of code calculating the Fibonacci series. New innovative programming languages are also included in the list.

Complete list Description Why use it?
C C offers great freedom, and lot of debugging challenge thanks to pointers and memory management.
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- Code
Suffering slow programming to make fast programs. For system programming.
C++ C++ is C plus objects, an extended library, templates.
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System programming as C but allow larger project, or applications and games.
C# Concurrent to java, C Sharp runs on .NET or Portable NET, Mono.
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Easier than C++, more modern than Java. May share resources with other languages under a common runtime.
Outside Windows, the runtime is limited.
Go System language designed to be compiled quickly. It replaces C++ and Python thanks to its integrated garbage collector.
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Perform scripts and system tools, or Web services that can grow indefinitely.
Pascal Old language (1970), improved with objects, imposes a strictly structured programming.
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Teaching, or client/server apps with Delphi.
BASIC This very old language (1964) was improved by Microsoft, with a complete programming environment. Other portages exist.
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Scripting Microsoft's software (Word etc...), dynamic web pages (ASP) on Windows servers, or apps with Visual Basic.
PHP Designed to be embedded inside HTML to build dynamic Web pages or update them from databases.
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Server-side scripting, producing HTML pages from data. The version 5 targets Web services.
Java Was designed to be portable and to replace C++.
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For cross-platform applications, web services and mobile phone apps under Android.
Scala Procedural, functional and object-oriented programming language.
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Offers a more compact syntax than Java on the virtual machine, improves productivity.
JavaScript,
ECMAScript
JavaScript has been invented to build dynamic client-side html pages, ECMAScript is the standardized version.
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For interactivity in web pages and applications.
Used with HTML 5 for Web or local apps on Windows 8 or Qt. Building a server with Node.js for communicating app.
TypeScript Modernized version of JavaScript with classes, interfaces, modules.
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To make large JavaScript applications, and facilitate reusability of code web applications.
Python A modern interpreted language with powerful built-in features and a unique indentation feature to shorten coding.
The Jython version compiles in Java bytecode.
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Programming at light speed. Powerful and easy to learn. Small scripts of small web services, scientific calculations.
Java scripting with Jython.
Eiffel, Sather Object-oriented, with "programming per contract" and other secure features. Sather is an open source implementation.
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Programming secured applications. Used by hospitals.
Ruby Designed with simplicity in mind. It is interpreted, and has a proprietary but extensible library.
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Writing scripts more easily. Using Ruby on Rails for Web applications.
Tcl A scripting language, easy to learn and available on any platform.
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Scripting of portable programs with GUI, and web programming by CGI.
Julia Multi-purpose language with scientific capacities, a clear syntax, compatible with LLVM.
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Suitable for scientific calculations and cloud computing.
Dart Language in HTML pages, supported by Chrome or converted to JavaScript.
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Alternative to JavaScript for big applications, on the server side.
Objective C Alternative to C++ on Apple computers mainly.
Code
Native applications on iPhone and iPad.
Perl A scripting interpreted language. Readabillity and ease of use are not the goal.
Perl
- Code
Mainly used by networks administrators and for small CGI scripts.
ASP Scripting language, server-side, for dynamic web pages by Microsoft, same syntax as Basic.
ASP
- Code
Producing HTML pages from data, but under Windows servers only.
Erlang Functional and concurrent language where the work is divided in processes.
Erlang - Code
Server-side processing for a site in expansion with massive requests. Whatsapp is made entirely with Erlang.
Assembler This is near the machine language and the fastest. You should never use it, as older programmers did. Making graphic subroutines, drivers or industrial processing.
Rebol Interpreted language for network scripting. The language itself may be augmented.
Rebol
- Code
Processing information on distributed computer systems, with small programs.
Lua Add-on or standalone language with extensible semantic.
Lua - Code
Game programming, embedded scripting.
Cobol Business language still used on big computers.
Cobol - Code
Maintaining old programs on mainframes.
Fortran One of the first languages, always used for mathematical tasks.
Fortran - Code
Has huge library for scientific calculations.
Lisp / Scheme / Lisp is a very old language designed for artificial intelligence, processes lists only. Scheme is a modernized version of Lisp.
Scheme - Code
Artificial intelligence and scripting.
Clojure Another newer version of Lisp.
Clojure.
Aimed at robust multithreading.
Prolog For logic programming, based on Horn's clauses.
Prolog - Code
Heavy artificial intelligence processing.
Haskell Functional programming. Slow and memory consuming.
Haskell
- Code
To try programming in another way
Smalltalk One of the first object oriented language, programs can't run outside the IDE.
Smalltalk - Code
Fully object-oriented programming, as a curiosity for students.
Caml, Ocalm Functional languages, Ocalm is object-oriented.
Caml - Code
Used by universities. Can help to build a compiler.
CoffeeScript Frontend to JavaScript.
CoffeeScript - Code
Applications on Node.js or web apps.
D C modernized with objects and memory handling.
D
System programming.
Scriptol A simple, object-oriented, universal language with an intuitive and powerful syntax. Compiles to C++ or PHP.
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Easy and universal for scripting, prototyping, making binary applications, dynamic web pages and XML processing.
SQL Language of data management.
MySQL
For databases queries.
XML Not really a programming language, but may be used for similar tasks.
XML
XML serves to describe precisely data and may include actions on data.
XSL allows to transform documents.

Languages implemented on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM):

Python, Ruby, Scala, NetRexx, Groovy, JavaScript (Rhino and Nashorn), Prolog, Clojure.

Designed to run on LLVM:

Julia, Rust.

These programming languages have a .NET implementation:

Basic, C#, C++, Cobol, Pascal, Perl, Python (IronPython), Scala, Clojure, a version of Java and lot or others.

May be compiled to JavaScript:

Dart, CoffeeScript, TypeScript, Clojure, OCaml, F#.

See also:

Last modified:
January 9, 2013: Removed Boo, added Go.
May 14, 2013: Removed Modula, Oberon, Netrexx and added CoffeeScript, Dart.
February 13, 2014: Added Julia.
February 25, 2014: Removed Forth, added Clojure, Objective C.

February 27, 2014: Added Erlang.
April 4, 2014. Added TypeScript.