List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order


The list of programming languages is comprised of all languages implemented in a compiler or an interpreter, in alphabetical order. And for recent languages​​, there is at least one widely used program written in this language.
In addition, historical languages with no compiler, but that may have influenced design of further work are included also, provided that the author of the further language has made a verifiable reference to them.
Most entries in the list has a link to a website or a download page for the compiler or the interpreter. For historical languages, a link to a dedicated website or a description. Additional info such as date and type of language may be added too.





















  • S. 1976. Bell Laboratories, John Chamber. Statistical language. Replaced by R.
  • S-algol, St Andrews Algol. 1979 by University of St-Andrews (Scotland). Simplified and improved version of ALGOL-60.
  • Sail. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language. 1970. Based on an associative memory or records, events, contexts.
  • SAM76. 1970+. Macro language for CP/M.
  • SAS. 1972. For statistical reports and analysis. Produces HTML or PDF documents.
  • SASL, St. Andrews Standard Language. 1972. Implementation of ISWIM.
  • Sather, after the Jane Sather tower. 1990 by Berkeley. Based on Eiffel but evolved with new feature such as functional programming, classes, iterators.
  • Sawzall. 2003. By Rob Pike at Google to manage log data of its servers.
  • Scala. 2003 by Martin Odersky. To write concise code Java compatible. Implements many new concepts.
  • Scheme. 1975 by MIT. Dialect of Lisp and ALGOL with a simple design.
  • Scratch. 2007. Educational language developed by MIT consisting of blocks to be assembled. The same principle was used for the OpenBlocks Java library.
  • Scriptol. 2001 Object oriented and designed to be intuitive and improve productivity, it integratges reactive and imperative programming. Interpreted or compiled to JavaScript, C++ or PHP.
  • Sed, Stream EDitor. 1974 by Bell Labs. Text processing.
  • Seed7. 2005. Similar to Pascal and ADA, extensible syntax.
  • Self. 1993. OO prototype based like Smalltalk, uses a JIT.
  • SETL, SET Language. 1967-1969. Has inspired ABC, predecessor of Python, and transmitted the idea of tuples.
  • Short Code. 1949. Precursor of programming languages.
  • Simit. 2016. By the MIT to replace Matlab and work on graphs or physical simulations, similar to Julia with graph structures.
  • Simula. 1962. Superset of ALGOL 60. Simula 67 introduced classes and inheritance, virtual methods, coroutines.
  • SISAL. Streams and Iteration in a Single Assignment Language. 1983. Pascal-like, functional, for numerical computations.
  • Slip, Symmetric LIst Processor. 1960+, list processor to fortran and other programming languages.
  • Smalltalk. 1972 by Alan Kay and others. OO, dynamic and reflexive, inspired other languages as Objective-C.
  • SNOBOL. 1962. Snobol 3 (1965), 4 (1966). Based mainly on pattern-matching. SPITPOL (SPeedy ImplemenTation of snobOL) is a compiled version of SNOBOL for IBM 360.
  • SOAP, Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program. 1957. IBM 650 assembly language.
  • Snowball, imitates SNOBOL. 2001. String processing, stemming algorithms, compiled to C or Java.
  • SPARK. 1983. ADA-like, for secure systems.
  • SP/k. 1974. Subset of PL/I, used for teaching.
  • SPL, Shakespeare Programming Language. 1993. Humorous.
  • Squeak. 1996. Dialect of Smalltalk.
  • Squirrel. 2003. C-like, for scripting embedded in a C or C++ app.
  • SR, Synchronizing Resources. Old concurrent language.
  • S/SL, Syntax/Semantic Language. 1980. University of Toronto. For code generators.
  • Standard ML. 1990. Derived from ML. Functional, type inference.
  • Subtext. 2001. Experimental visual PL.
  • SuperCollider. 1996. Interpreted, OO for real time audio synthesis and algorithmic composition.
  • SuperX++. 2001. XML language.
  • Swift. 2014. By Apple for its OS in the goal to replace Objective-C by a safer and faster language. Another language has the same name.
  • Synergy/DBL. Language for the development environment Synergy/DE.


  • T. 1980+. A version of Scheme.
  • TACL,Tandem Advanced Command Language. 1974. Scripting language used by Hewlett-Packard on servers.
  • TACPOL, Tactical Procedure Oriented Language. Before 1977. Implementation of PL/I, was used by US army.
  • TADS, Text Adventure Development System. 1988. A language to make games.
  • TAL, Transaction Application Language. System language, cross between C and Pascal, for Tandem computers.
  • Transcript. Voir Revolution.
  • Tcl, Tool Command Language. 1988 by John Ousterhout. Tk is an associated graphical toolkit.
  • TELCOMP. 1965. Derived from JOSS, conversationnal language used on PDP computers until 1974. Influenced Mumps.
  • Tempo. Declarative, logic, and concurrent.
  • Titanium. 2005. Dialect of Java, parallel, for scientific computing.
  • TI-BASIC. 1996. BASIC-like language for Texas Instrument calculators.
  • Toit. 2019. For microcontrollers of IOT , the Internet of Things, from developers of V8 and Dart at Google.
  • TOM. 1990+. OO with dynamic extensible classes.
  • TRAC, Text Reckoning And Compiling. 1960+. Macro-oriented for text processing.
  • TTCN-3, Testing and Test Control Notation. For communication systems control.
  • Turing. 1982. Pascal-like, derived from Euclid.
  • TUTOR. 1965. CAI programming language.
  • TypeScript. 2012. Superset to JavaScript by Microsoft, with static types, classes and modules. Compiled to JavaScript. Open source under Apache license.
  • TXL, Turing eXtender Language. 1988. Derived from Turing above.


  • Ubercode. 2005. Commercial, cross between Eiffel and BASIC.
  • UNCOL, Universal Computer Oriented Language. 1958 by Melvin E. Conway. First concept for an intermediate language for a virtual machine.
  • Unicon. Unified Extended Dialect of Icon. 1996. Based on Icon with OO, access to the system.
  • UnrealScript. 1998. Scripting the Unreal engine for games.
  • UrbiScript. 2003. Robot programming language.
  • UML, Unified Modeling Language. 1994 by Rational Software. Visual programming language, ISO standard.


  • Verilog HDL, Verilog Hardware Description Language. 1990.
  • VHDL, VHSIC Hardware Description Language. 1980+.
  • VDS. Visual DialogScript. 1995. Interpreted to build interfaces on Windows.
  • Visual Basic. 1991 by Microsoft. Version OO and improved of BASIC.
  • Visual Basic .NET. 2001. Successor to Visual Basic 6.0, runs on .NET.
  • VBScript, Visual Basic Script Edition.1996 by Microsoft. Lighweight and interpreted version of Visual Basic for Windows.
  • VTL, VTL-2, Very Tiny Language. 1976. Minimal language stored in less than 1 K byte ROM of the Altair 680B and 8800.


  • Water. For prototyping XML web services.
  • Whitespace. 2003. Actually a joke, an "esoteric" programming language, with a real interpreter.
  • Winbatch. 1991. Scripting language for Windows.
  • Wiring. 2003. Development plateform and C-like language dedicated to electronics.
  • WLanguage. 1992. Generator of applications, influenced by BASIC and Pascal
  • Wolfram. 2013. Based to knowledge processing, it combines several paradigms to achieve greater flexibility in automatic processing.
  • Wyvern, name of mythical creature. 2014 by Carnegie Mellon University. Interpreted and compiled for secure apps.


  • X10. 2004. By IBM for the PERCS project. Aims at performances on large sites with structured parallelism.
  • XOTcl, Extended Object Tcl. Object oriented version of TCL with mixins.
  • XPL. 1968. Derived from PL/I, for compiler writing.
  • XL, eXtensible Language. 2000. Implements "concept programming". Any program can reconfigure its syntax.
  • Xtend. 2011 by the Eclipse Foundation to ease Java, makes improvements, such as removing  semicolons, a powerful switch as in Scriptol. Compiles to Java code.


  • YAFL. 1990+. A version of Modula-2.
  • Yorick. 1996. Interpreted language for scientific calculations and simulations.


  • Z Notation. 1977. Visual specification of programs like UML.
  • Zig. 2016. Humorous language designed like a parody of Rust.
  • ZPL, Z-level Programming Language. Parallel for scientific and engineering computations.
  • ZOPL, Version Z, Our Programming Language. 1970+. Similar to C and Pascal, for mainframes.

Markup languages and data formats

  • CFML, ColdFusion Markup Langage. 1995 by Adobe. Scriptin of Web apps running on JVM and .NET.
  • EmotionML. 2013. An XML dialect for representing emotions, by the W3C..
  • HTML, HyperText Markup Language. 1991 bys Tim Berners-Lee. Based on SGML.
  • JSON Patch. Standard proposed by IETF for actions on a JSON document.
  • PostScript. 1982 by Adobe. Langage of graphic vectors, often used for document publishing.
  • Protocol Buffers. 2008 by Google. Format of document serialization on textual files, similar to JSON. FlatBuffer is a faster binary version.
  • RDF, Resource Description Framework. 1999 by W3C. Format to store information with metadata.
  • SGML, Standard Generalized Markup Language. 1969 by IBM. Precusort to XML for human readable data storage.
  • SVG, Scalable Vector Graphic. 2001 by W3C. XML-based vector format for 2D graphics, supported by browsers.
  • Tex. Text formatting.
  • XAML. eXtensible Application Markup Language.
  • XBL. eXtensible Bindings Language. For widget creating in Xml based languages.
  • Xforms. Web graphical interactive user interface.
  • XML. eXtensible Markup Language.
  • XUL. XML-based User interface Language.

Query or database oriented languages

  • Andl. 2015. A new DataBase query language which is not SQL. He wants to store more logic in the database and simplify the queries. Implemented on PostgreSQL.
  • AQL, Aerospike Query Language. 2012. Simple language but more evolved than SQL for the Aerospike DBM.
  • Aubit-4GL. See Informix.
  • D. 1994. Abstract relational language, implemented in D4 written in C#. Tutorial D is a teaching version.
  • Dataflex. 1980. Database programming language.
  • dBase. 1979. First database programming language on personal computer (Apple II and IBM PC).
  • GraphQL. 2015. Created by Facebook to simplify queries instead of SQL. They takes the form of a JavaScript object.
  • Hypertalk. 1987. Card language for Apple.
  • Informix-4GL. 4GL means for fourth generation specialized language. Informix is specialized in databases and reports.
  • pl/SQL. SQL extension.
  • SQL, Structured Query Language. 1987 by IBM. Most commonly used query language.
  • Visual Foxpro. 1984. Derived from dBase. Owned by Microsoft, replaced by LightSwitch.

See also


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