List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order


The list of programming languages is comprised of all languages implemented in a compiler or an interpreter, in alphabetical order. And for recent languages​​, there is at least one widely used program written in this language.
In addition, historical languages with no compiler, but that may have influenced design of further work are included also, provided that the author of the further language has made a verifiable reference to them.
Most entries in the list has a link to a website or a download page for the compiler or the interpreter. For historical languages, a link to a dedicated website or a description. Additional info such as date and type of language may be added too.





















  • S. 1976. Bell Laboratories, John Chamber. Statistical language. Replaced by R.
  • Sail. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language. 1970. Based on an associative memory or records, events, contexts.
  • SAM76. 1970+. Macro language for CP/M.
  • SAS. 1972. For statistical reports and analysis. Produces HTML or PDF documents.
  • SASL, St. Andrews Standard Language. 1972. Implementation of ISWIM.
  • Sather, after the Jane Sather tower. 1990 by Berkeley. Based on Eiffel but evolved with new feature such as functional programming, classes, iterators.
  • Sawzall. 2003. By Rob Pike at Google to manage log data of its servers.
  • Scala. 2003 by Martin Odersky. To write concise code Java compatible. Implements many new concepts.
  • Scheme. 1975 by MIT. Dialect of Lisp and ALGOL with a simple design.
  • Scratch. 2007. Educational language developed by MIT consisting of blocks to be assembled. The same principle was used for the OpenBlocks Java library.
  • Scriptol. 2001 Object oriented and XML oriented. Designed to be intuitive and improve productivity. Interpreted and compiled to C++, PHP, JavaScript too.
  • Sed, Stream EDitor. 1974 by Bell Labs. Text processing.
  • Seed7. 2005. Similar to Pascal and ADA, extensible syntax.
  • Self. 1993. OO prototype based like Smalltalk, uses a JIT.
  • SETL, SET Language. 1967-1969. Has inspired ABC, predecessor of Python, and transmitted the idea of tuples.
  • Short Code. 1949. Precursor of programming languages.
  • Simula. 1962. Superset of ALGOL 60. Simula 67 introduced classes and inheritance, virtual methods, coroutines.
  • SISAL. Streams and Iteration in a Single Assignment Language. 1983. Pascal-like, functional, for numerical computations.
  • Slip, Symmetric LIst Processor. 1960+, list processor to fortran and other programming languages.
  • Smalltalk. 1972 by Alan Kay and others. OO, dynamic and reflexive, inspired other languages as Objective-C.
  • SNOBOL. 1962. Snobol 3 (1965), 4 (1966). Based mainly on pattern-matching. SPITPOL (SPeedy ImplemenTation of snobOL) is a compiled version of SNOBOL for IBM 360.
  • SOAP, Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program. 1957. IBM 650 assembly language.
  • Snowball, imitates SNOBOL. 2001. String processing, stemming algorithms, compiled to C or Java.
  • SPARK. 1983. ADA-like, for secure systems.
  • SP/k. 1974. Subset of PL/I, used for teaching.
  • SPL, Shakespeare Programming Language. 1993. Humorous.
  • Squeak. 1996. Dialect of Smalltalk.
  • Squirrel. 2003. C-like, for scripting embedded in a C or C++ app.
  • SR, Synchronizing Resources. Old concurrent language.
  • S/SL, Syntax/Semantic Language. 1980. University of Toronto. For code generators.
  • Standard ML. 1990. Derived from ML. Functional, type inference.
  • Subtext. 2001. Experimental visual PL.
  • SuperCollider. 1996. Interpreted, OO for real time audio synthesis and algorithmic composition.
  • SuperX++. 2001. XML language.
  • Swift. 2014. By Apple for its OS in the goal to replace Objective-C by a safer and faster language. Another language has the same name.
  • Synergy/DBL. Language for the development environment Synergy/DE.


  • T. 1980+ A version of Scheme.
  • TACL,Tandem Advanced Command Language. 1974. Scripting language used by Hewlett-Packard on servers.
  • TACPOL, Tactical Procedure Oriented Language. Before 1977. Implementation of PL/I, was used by US army.
  • TADS, Text Adventure Development System. 1988. A language to make games.
  • TAL, Transaction Application Language. System language, cross between C and Pascal, for Tandem computers.
  • Transcript. Voir Revolution.
  • Tcl, Tool Command Language. 1988 by John Ousterhout. Tk is an associated graphical toolkit.
  • TELCOMP. 1965. Derived from JOSS, conversationnal language used on PDP computers until 1974. Influenced Mumps.
  • Tempo. Declarative, logic, and concurrent.
  • Titanium. 2005. Dialect of Java, parallel, for scientific computing.
  • TI-BASIC. 1996. BASIC-like language for Texas Instrument calculators.
  • TOM. 1990+. OO with dynamic extensible classes.
  • TRAC, Text Reckoning And Compiling. 1960+. Macro-oriented for text processing.
  • TTCN-3, Testing and Test Control Notation. For communication systems control.
  • Turing. 1982. Pascal-like, derived from Euclid.
  • TUTOR. 1965. CAI programming language.
  • TypeScript. 2012. Superset to JavaScript by Microsoft, with static types, classes and modules. Compiled to JavaScript. Open source under Apache license.
  • TXL, Turing eXtender Language. 1988. Derived from Turing above.


  • Ubercode. 2005. Commercial, cross between Eiffel and BASIC.
  • UNCOL, Universal Computer Oriented Language. 1958 by Melvin E. Conway. First concept for an intermediate language for a virtual machine.
  • Unicon. Unified Extended Dialect of Icon. 1996. Based on Icon with OO, access to the system.
  • UnrealScript. 1998. Scripting the Unreal engine for games.
  • UrbiScript. 2003. Robot programming language.
  • UML, Unified Modeling Language. 1994 by Rational Software. Visual programming language, ISO standard.


  • Verilog HDL, Verilog Hardware Description Language. 1990.
  • VHDL, VHSIC Hardware Description Language. 1980+.
  • VDS. Visual DialogScript. 1995. Interpreted to build interfaces on Windows.
  • Visual Basic. 1991 by Microsoft. Version OO and improved of BASIC.
  • Visual Basic .NET. 2001. Successor to Visual Basic 6.0, runs on .NET.
  • VBScript, Visual Basic Script Edition.1996 by Microsoft. Lighweight and interpreted version of Visual Basic for Windows.


  • Water. For prototyping XML web services.
  • Whitespace. 2003. Actually a joke, an "esoteric" programming language, with a real interpreter.
  • Winbatch. 1991. Scripting language for Windows.
  • Wiring. 2003. Development plateform and C-like language dedicated to electronics.
  • WLanguage. 1992. Generator of applications, influenced by BASIC and Pascal
  • Wolfram. 2013. Based to knowledge processing, it combines several paradigms to achieve greater flexibility in automatic processing.


  • X10. 2004. By IBM for the PERCS project. Aims at performances on large sites with structured parallelism.
  • XOTcl, Extended Object Tcl. Object oriented version of TCL with mixins.
  • XPL. 1968. Derived from PL/I, for compiler writing.
  • XL, eXtensible Language. 2000. Implements "concept programming". Any program can reconfigure its syntax.
  • Xtend. 2011 by the Eclipse Foundation to ease Java, makes improvements, such as removing  semicolons, a powerful switch as in Scriptol. Compiles to Java code.


  • YAFL.
  • Yorick. Language for scientific calculations and simulations.


  • Z notation. Visual specification of programs like UML.
  • ZPL.
  • ZOPL. (Not verified)
  • ZUG. (Not verified)

Markup languages and data formats

  • CFML. ColdFusion Markup Language.
  • EmotionML. An XML dialect for representing emotions, by the W3C..
  • HTML. HyperText Markup Language.
  • JSON Patch. This basic language is a standard proposed by IETF for operations on a JSON document.
  • PostScript. 1985.
  • Protocol Buffers. By Google, became open in 2008.
  • RDF. Resource Description Framework.
  • SGML. 1969.
  • SVG. Scalable Vector Graphic.
  • Tex. Text formatting.
  • XAML. eXtensible Application Markup Language.
  • XBL. eXtensible Bindings Language. For widget creating in Xml based languages.
  • Xforms. Web graphical interactive user interface.
  • XML. eXtensible Markup Language.
  • XUL. XML-based User interface Language.

Query or database oriented languages

  • Aubit-4GL. See Informix.
  • D4 or Dataphor. Based on Tutorial D.
  • Dataflex. 1980. Database programming language.
  • dBase. programming language.
  • Hypertalk. 1987. Card language for Apple.
  • Informix-4GL. 4GL means for fourth generation specialized language. Informix is specialized in databases and reports.
  • pl/SQL. SQL extension.
  • SQL. 1987. Structured Query Language.
  • Tutorial D.
  • Visual Foxpro. Derived from dBase.
  • xBaseScript. (xbScript) Clipper database scripting.

See also


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